This study showed for the first time that MSP®IMMUNITY activates heterophils (improved glucuronidase release and oxidative burst) and monocytes (higher NO release) through activation of receptors TLR2 and TLR4. The signaling pathways of these receptors displays differences in their ability to induce heterophils degranulation and oxidative burst in vitro. In addition, the activation of heterophils and monocytes leads to an upregulation of the transcription of several immune mediators genes in both cellular types, partly in a cell specific manner. These immune mediators are produced during innate immune responses and play an important role as activators of the adaptive immune response.
Oral administration of MSP®IMMUNITY results in activation of avian neutrophils and monocytes in vivo. Moreover, in vivo activation of heterophils and monocytes led to a transient increase of immune mediators transcription, including interleukin 1-β, interferon-α and interferon-γ suggesting a Th1 orientation of the immune response
Olmix Group's researcher.